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KARTA EUROPE

Vaš vodič kroz Europu!-------Your guide to Europe!--------Votre guide vers l'Europe!------Ihr Wegweiser durch Europa!------Su guía para Europa!

29.01.2008.

MOSKVA

Moskva (ruski Москва, čit. Maskva) je glavni i najveći grad Rusije. Nalazi se na rijeci Moskvi i obuhvaća površinu od 878,7 km². Broj stanovnika brzo raste i prema procjeni iz 2004. ima ih oko 11,2 milijuna.

Moskva ima status grada federalnog značaja (federalnog subjekta). Uz nju, takav status u Rusiji ima još samo Sankt Peterburg. Nalazi se u Središnjem federalnom okrugu. Administrativno se dijeli na 10 okruga koji se dijele na mnogobrojne područne uprave.

U središtu grada nalazi se Kremlj, utvrđeni kompleks koji je do 1703. bio političko središte Ruskog Carstva, a od 1918. Sovjetskog Saveza, i od 1991. Ruske Federacije. Uz istočni zid Kremlja prostire se Crveni trg, mjesto mnogih državnih ceremonija. Na trgu se nalaze i dvije vjerojatno najpoznatije moskovske građevine - katedrala Sv. Vasilija Blaženog i mauzolej Lenjina.

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Engleska verzija / English version
BUDAPEST

Budapest is the capital of Hungary.[1] As the largest city of Hungary, it serves as the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation center[2] and is considered an important hub in Central Europe.[3] In 2009, Budapest had 1,712,210 inhabitants,[4] down from a mid-1980s peak of 2.1 million. The Budapest Commuter Area (or Greater Budapest) is home to 3,271,110 people.[5][6] The city covers an area of 525 square kilometres (202.7 sq mi)[7] within the city limits. Budapest became a single city occupying both banks of the river Danube with a unification on 17 November 1873 of right (west)-bank Buda and Óbuda with left (east)-bank Pest.[7][8]

Aquincum, originally a Celtic settlement,[9] was the direct ancestor of Budapest,[10] becoming the Roman capital of Lower Pannonia.[9] Magyars arrived in the territory[11] in the 9th century. Their first settlement was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241-42.[12] The re-established town became one of the centers of Renaissance humanist culture[13] in the 15th century.[14] Following the Battle of Mohács and nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule,[15] development of the region entered a new age of prosperity in the 18th and 19th centuries, and Budapest became a global city after the 1873 unification.[16] It also became the second capital of Austria-Hungary, a great power that dissolved in 1918. Budapest was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848[note 1], the Hungarian Soviet Republic of 1919, Operation Panzerfaust in 1944, the Battle of Budapest of 1945, and the Revolution of 1956.

Regarded as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe,[1][11][17][18] its extensive World Heritage Site includes the banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter, Andrássy Avenue, Heroes' Square and the Millennium Underground Railway, the second oldest in the world.[17][19] Other highlights include a total of 80 geothermal springs,[20] the world's largest thermal water cave system,[21] second largest synagogue, and third largest Parliament building. The collections of the Natural History Museum and the Museum of Fine Arts are also significant.

The city ranked 3rd (out of 65 cities) on Mastercard's Emerging Markets Index (2008),[22] and ranked as the most livable Central/Eastern European city on EIU's quality of life index (2009).[23] It attracts over 20 million visitors a year.[24] The headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT)[25] and the first foreign office of the CIPA will be in Budapest.[26]


SOLUN - Thessaloniki

Thessaloniki (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη, IPA: [θesaloˈniki]), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia.[2] It is honourably called the Συμπρωτεύουσα Symprotevousa (lit. co-capital) of Greece, as it was once called the συμβασιλεύουσα symvasilevousa (royal co-capital) of the Byzantine Empire. According to the 2001 census, the municipality of Thessaloniki had a population of 363,987. The entire Thessaloniki Urban Area had a population of 763,468.[3]

Thessaloniki is Greece's second major economic, industrial, commercial and political centre, and a major transportation hub for the rest of southeastern Europe; its commercial port is also of great importance for Greece and its southeast European hinterland. The city hosts an annual International Trade Fair, the Thessaloniki International Film Festival, and the largest bi-annual meeting of the Greek diaspora.[4]

Thessaloniki retains several Ottoman and Jewish structures as well as a large number of Byzantine architectural monuments.



Birmingham

Birmingham (pronounced /ˈbɝːmɪŋəm/ ( listen), BUR-ming-əm, locally /ˈbɝːmɪŋɡəm/ BUR-ming-gəm) is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands county of England. It is the most populous British city outside London with a population of 1,016,800 (2008 estimate),[2] and lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the United Kingdom's second most populous Urban Area with a population of 2,284,093 (2001 census).[3] Birmingham's metropolitan area, which includes surrounding towns to which it is closely tied through commuting, is the United Kingdom's second most populous with a population of 3,683,000.[4]

Birmingham was the powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution in England, a fact which led to it being known as "the workshop of the world" or the "city of a thousand trades".[5] Although Birmingham's industrial importance has declined, it has developed into a national commercial centre, being named as the second-best place in the United Kingdom to locate a business, and the 14th best in Europe by Cushman & Wakefield in 2009.[6] Birmingham is a national hub for conferences, retail and events along with an established high tech, research and development sector, supported by its three Universities. It is also the fourth-most visited city by foreign visitors in the UK.[7]

In 2007, Birmingham was ranked as the 55th-most livable city in the world and the second most livable in the UK, according to the Mercer Index of worldwide standards of living.[8] Birmingham was also one of the founding cities for the Eurocities group and is also sitting as chair. Birmingham has the second-largest city economy in the UK, and was ranked 72nd in the world in 2008.[9]

People from Birmingham are known as 'Brummies', a term derived from the city's nickname of 'Brum'. This comes in turn from the city's dialect name, Brummagem,[10] which may have been derived from one of the city's earlier names, 'Bromwicham'. There is a distinctive Brummie dialect and accent, both of which differ from the adjacent Black Country.


Munchen/Munich

Munich (German: München, pronounced [ˈmʏnçən] ( listen); Austro-Bavarian: Minga[2]) is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. It is located on the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg. There are approximately 1.35 million people living within city limits, while the Munich Metropolitan Area (including the urban areas of Augsburg, Ingolstadt, Rosenheim and Landshut) is home to over 5 million people.[3]

The city's motto is "München mag Dich" (Munich Loves You). Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" (Cosmopolitan city with a heart). Its native name, München, is derived from the Old German word Mönche, meaning "Monks". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city, hence the monk depicted on the city's coat of arms. Black and gold—the colours of the Holy Roman Empire—have been the city's official colours since the time of Ludwig the Bavarian.

Munich is not the only location within Bavaria known as "München". Three such locations exist: the one which is known as "Munich"; another which is northeast of the city of Nuremberg, and also Hutthurm, a town north of the city of Passau.



Zürich (German: Zürich , Zürich German: Zürih ˈtsyɾi, French: Zurich in English generally Zurich, Italian: Zurigo) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 371,767 in 2007; population of urban area is some 1,007,972) and capital of the canton of Zürich. The city is Switzerland's main commercial and cultural centre (the political capital of Switzerland being Bern), and is widely considered to be one of the world's global cities. According to several surveys in 2006[1] and 2007[2], Zürich was named the city with the "best quality of life" in the world.
POVIJEST
In Roman times, Turicum was a tax-collecting point at the border of Gallia Belgica (from AD 90 Germania superior) and Raetia for goods trafficked on the Limmat river.Zürich became reichsunmittelbar in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family. A city wall was built during the 1230s, enclosing 38 hectares.

Emperor Frederick II promoted the abbess of the Fraumünster to the rank of a duchess in 1234 . The abbess assigned the mayor, and she frequently delegated the minting of coins to citizens of the city.